Weekend Update: Quo Primum and Heretic Popes

Please review post

Here are the links for the weekend videos and relevant sources. Also, for Quo Primum there is a guest post to coincide with it for further reading.

Saturday: On the Legitimacy of the Roman Pontiff } Cardinal Billot

Video:

Sources:

Sunday: Quo Primum and the Primacy of the Latin Mass } Fr Gregory Hesse

Video:

Sources:

For more Fr. Hesse:

https://archive.org/details/FatherHesse

Further Reading:

Pope Saint Pius V: The Renaissance Pope who feared responsibility, yet successfully fought a war on three fronts.

Submitted& written by Brendan Muller

https://quoprimum.net/

Pope St Pius V was one of the most influential popes in the history of the Church. His papacy lasted for only six years, from 1566 until 1572, but his achievements were numerous, various and monumental, particularly in reforming the Church, in fighting Protestant heresy and in thwarting the imminent threat of an Islamic conquest of Europe. On all these fronts, he was the heroic saviour of Catholicism, and his greatest victory of all, the Battle of Lepanto, was the apotheosis of the renewed vigour and unity of purpose engendered by the reforms of the Council of Trent, which Pius V was successful in implementing with great thoroughness, efficiency and fearless determination. Somewhat ironically, this powerful Pope was naturally terrified of responsibility, and seemed to be an unlikely choice for high office [1]. Although adored by the devout, he was unpopular with many in the ruling classes, being distinctly at odds with the worldliness and lax morality of the Renaissance. Fastidious, perfectionist, and fair-minded, he commanded respect and awe, even among his numerous detractors [2]. His great legacy is the restoration and defence of Catholic teaching and the proper functioning of Christendom at a time when both were under siege, placing the salvation of souls first and foremost as his guiding principle.

A study of St Pius V’s childhood and adult life prior to him becoming Pope reveals both the intensity with which he lived his faith and a great reluctance to accept promotion to higher office. He was born Antonio Ghislieri in 1504, in Bosco in the north west of Italy. His parents, though descended from nobility, were poor and Antonio seemed destined for the life of a shepherd. At fourteen, however, he convinced his parents to let him enter a Dominican monastery, where he began a long and rigorous education. He changed his name to Michele, after St Michael the Archangel, eventually became a teacher of philosophy and theology and was ordained in 1528 [3]. The young priest soon earned a reputation for being extremely diligent and courageous. Numerous stories attest to his unflinching manner of staring down almost certain death with a force of personality and passionate defence of the Church that astounded and neutralized any would-be assassin or angry mob [4]. Although wanting to remain a simple priest and teacher, and to live in obscurity in a monastery, Michele Ghislieri was forced into rapid promotion, a victim of his own astounding honesty, efficiency and success. Typically, he would resist every promotion and only accept when reminded of his duty to put his life and talents at the service of God and the Church. His personality exuded a detachment from worldliness, which led to conflicts when he came up against powerful people, including princes of the Church, who were more used to fawning obsequiousness from all. As Inquisitor, he refused all requests for special favours from powerful people of high social rank, treating all with equal fairness and strictly according to the rules. He abhorred lax morals, heresy, nepotism and self-interest, showing unusual modesty of dress and an extreme austerity of living, which included near permanent self-mortification [5]. He begged not to be made Bishop, and then a year later, his elevation to Cardinal was imposed upon him as a duty that he was not allowed to refuse. Even during the drawn-out Papal conclave of January 1566, when the cardinals settled, after much deliberation, on Michele Ghislieri as the only possible candidate for pope, they went down to his cell in the Borgia Tower, and then “led him almost unwillingly and by force to the Pauline Chapel” [6].

The first battle of Pope Pius V was to restore Catholicism in the Church by implementing the resolutions of the Council of Trent. As a priest and Inquisitor, Michele Ghislieri had become expert in promoting Catholicism and punishing laxity in matters of faith and morals. Becoming Pope saw him extending this housecleaning to the entire Church and even the city of Rome. He formalized and standardized the liturgy, purged the Mass of any spurious innovation, restoring its former purity, which had been handed down since apostolic times. An exception was made for any changes that were at least two hundred years old, like the Ambrosian, or “Milanese” Rite. Liturgical music, which had become almost entertainingly operatic in style, was entrusted to the composer Palestrina, whom he appointed choirmaster of the papal chapel, and an emphasis on the meditative beauty of the Gregorian chant was “restored to its full beauty and pride of place in the Roman liturgy as the Latin Church’s oldest and purest musical expression (reconfirmed by Vatican Council II)” [7]. The Latin language was purified, from the grammatically poor Latin of the Missals to the texts of his fellow Dominican, St Thomas Aquinas, whom Pius V elevated to official Doctor of the Church, and whose metaphysics and theology were now promoted and instilled in all the seminaries, setting an enduring standard for the training of all future priests and theologians [8]. This restored and purified Catholicism – in the liturgy, seminaries and canonical writings – was promulgated for all time [9]. Strict discipline in the clergy was enforced. Simony, nepotism and all forms of corruption were harshly punished.

Church reform also included ending the decadent behaviour of the laity within Christendom. Extending this purge beyond the Church and the Vatican, Pius V restored public morality in all of Rome and the Papal States, imposing swift justice on thieves, recidivists and drunkards, banning horse racing from St Peter’s square and bullfighting from all Christendom, and encouraging conversion to a sincerely lived faith among all citizens [10]. Prostitutes were encouraged to convert and enter convents, usury was abolished, bandits and robbers were executed, and harsh penalties were incurred by those guilty of inappropriate disturbance in places of divine worship, including chattering and joking or generally not respecting silence and decent dress codes, with a special punishment meted out for blasphemy or any profane behaviour on Holy Days and Sundays. Adulterers were punished regardless of social status, and it was made illegal to employ young girls as servants, as this was a well-known risk to their virtue [11]. The strict enforcement of Catholic values transformed the Papal States within a short period. A German nobleman, visiting Rome in 1566 during Lent and Holy Week, only a few months after the January election of Pius V, observed in a letter home that the Rome he had known before was now unrecognisable. A sudden, stark transformation had permeated society. The churches could not contain the vast numbers of penitents who would sleep on bare ground and fast rigorously:

“As long as I live I shall witness, to the shame of Satan and all his ministers, that I saw in Rome at this time the most marvellous works of penitence and piety. … But nothing can astonish me under such a Pope. His fasts, his humility, his innocence, his holiness, his zeal for the faith, shine so brilliantly that he seems a second St. Leo, or St. Gregory the Great. … I do not hesitate to say that had Calvin himself been raised from the tomb on Easter Day and seen the holy Pope . . . blessing his kneeling people … in spite of himself he would have recognized and venerated the true representative of Jesus Christ!” [12].

Pius V inspired deep respect, especially from those who witnessed the devotion in his demeanour during processions and from those who were privy to the self-abnegation he practised daily. “This Pope is a Saint” [13], and “Rome has become a monastery” were common utterances, pronounced with a mixture of admiration and occasional dread by the people of Rome and ambassadors to the Holy See [14]. But the silent, God-fearing majority was grateful for the efficiency of his uncompromising application of Catholic values and for the public safety and sense of community that this purging engendered.

The second battle for Pius V was with the heresy of Protestantism that had turned much of Europe into a battlefield. The eight wars of religion (1562 – 1598) had drained the finances and energy of Northern Europe and the ongoing conflict in France between Huguenots and Catholics was bitter and bloody. The short-lived restoration of Catholicism in England under Queen Mary had been overturned by the erstwhile Catholic, Elizabeth I, who, in imitation of her father, had declared herself head of the English Church and had renewed and intensified the persecution of English Catholics [15]. Pius V was obstinate in his refusal to give an inch to any pressure from Protestants, understanding that one could not negotiate with hardened anti-Catholics. He enforced more than ever the ban on heretical books, knowing how incendiary such works had been in spreading Protestant rebellion. He criticized Catholic leaders, like the vacillating Hapsburg Maximilian II, for appeasing the Protestant princes. Ignoring the objections from King Philip II of Spain, he excommunicated Elizabeth I with a papal bull, issued on 25 February 1570, that referred to her as “pretended queen of England and the servant of crime” [16]. His attempts to suppress the Protestant revolt were often undermined by the Catholic leaders themselves. Philip II of Spain regularly sided with Elizabeth I against Rome, refusing, for example, to publish the bull of excommunication in his own states and even attempting to prevent the document itself from reaching England [17]. The Holy Father of Christendom was troubled by the wayward behaviour of these squabbling, disobedient children – these kings and queens of Renaissance Europe – and the all too infamous lack of unity, which was sending dangerous signals to foreign enemies [18].

The third and final battle for Pius V was with expansionist Islam. Pius was elected pope in early 1566 at a time of intense existential crisis in Europe: Ottoman Turks had recently shown their intention of launching a serious invasion of Western Europe, continuing a pattern that had started in the 12th century [19]. They made this abundantly clear with their seizure of Belgrade, which had fallen in 1521. Hungary also had suffered a final defeat at the 1566 “Siege of Szigetvár”, and Vienna was bracing itself for an invasion. It is no exaggeration to conclude that “all Western civilization was in imminent and most deadly danger” [20]. The Catholic countries, notably Spain, Habsburg Austria and the Venetian Republic, were still bitterly divided rivals. The Venetians were the most compromised by a long-standing policy of appeasement for pecuniary benefits, having “laboured hard to placate and accommodate … the Ottomans in Istanbul” [21].

Unlike Philip II and the Venetians, the Ottoman threat was for Pius V not just strategic “saber rattling” from a rival imperial power, but an evil that threatened to conquer and subjugate all of Christendom [22]. Pius V drew on the bitter lessons learned from both success and failure during the various Crusades, from the example of Charles Martel, the “lion in the path”, whose victory in 731 on the banks of the Loire “over the arrogant invaders proved to be the turning-point in the Moslem career of conquest” [23], and from the still festering open wound of having lost once thriving Christian lands, from Egypt, North Africa, to Jerusalem and Arabia. There was no question of retaking all of those lands under his papacy, but every intention of putting a decisive stop to any chance of Islam becoming the official religion of Europe.

In 1565, Suleiman’s siege of Malta had almost been successful, reminding Catholic Europe of the lingering intangible threat that was not likely to go away on its own. In September 1566, Pius V ordered a Forty Hours devotion in Rome, and he personally led many public prayers and processions. Suleiman died on the day of the third of these processions. He was said to be more afraid of the Pope’s prayers than any naval force [25]. When Selim II became Sultan, it was clear that he intended to continue, and even extend, the expansionist policy of his father. The attack on Venetian-controlled Cyprus in 1570 led Pius V to renew his efforts to drag the Catholic rulers into an alliance, despite years of reluctance [26]. Finally, the Venetians began to see beyond their immediate economic self-interest and to understand the direction in which Selim II’s renewed campaign of Ottoman expansion was heading. The Pope began to turn the loose association of Catholic powers into a Holy Alliance which then became the Holy League. The time of acquiescing in piecemeal measures had passed [27]. The only way to discourage Turkish ambitions in Europe would be to deliver a decisive, pre-emptive blow to their naval superiority, which would stifle their confidence, initiative and imperial prestige.

Any naval engagement at that time meant combat between oar-powered, canon-equipped rowing ships combined with intense hand-to-hand combat. Although the Spanish King maintained a large Armada and was benefiting from gold and treasure arriving from the New World, Turkish naval power was unrivalled and the Sultan, whose wealth was superior to any European monarch, was able to maintain dominance of the eastern Mediterranean [28]. Even if a Holy Alliance could be formed, the chances of success, from a military point of view, would be slim. They were outnumbered in both soldiers and ships and were dwarfed by the experience and expertise of the veterans of the Turkish naval combatants, many of whom had learned their skills as pirates on the high seas [29].

To achieve his goal of creating a vast military force, a Holy Alliance, involving Venice, Spain and Austria as principle actors, Pius V had to overcome seemingly insurmountable barriers. King Philip II of Spain did not in any way represent “the secular arm of the papacy” [30]. On the contrary, his relationship with every pope during his reign was strained and sometimes hostile, proving that there was something deeper to the discord than mere conflicts of personality [31]. There was no certainty that Philip II would be willing to join this grand effort, given his regular disobedience to Rome, his distrust of the Venetians, and the fact he “was already pressed financially by the rebellions in the Low Countries and Alpujarras” [32]. Yet Pius V knew that without the Spanish Armada, the effort would be futile. As for the Venetians, they were still too optimistic about maintaining their fragile, yet lucrative, financial arrangement with the Turks to risk anything as costly and dangerous as a pre-emptive military strike against the Ottoman Empire, whom they feared and were trying to appease [33]. The Austrians, under the vacillating Maximilian II, were suspicious of all other powers and all too eager to compromise with Protestant powers.

Pius V’s deep strategy was to pray and fast until his Holy Alliance was formed and, ultimately, victorious. He declared that he would forego all meat and eat only eggs “until all infidels and heresy had been eradicated” [34]. At a more ostensibly practical level, he wrote letters, in which he assumed his rightful place as Father of Christendom, addressing his pleas for help to his “sons”. Despite ongoing reluctance, and partly because of the relentless year-long Turkish siege of the Christian town of Famagusta in Cyprus, the Holy League was eventually formed. It was a rare instance in history of bitter rivals putting aside their differences, however briefly, to engage in a common struggle, a fight for existence. It is hard to understand how such supposedly Catholic rulers should have put for so long their own self-interests above the long-term needs of the Church: “In retrospect it seems incredible that the security of Christendom should have been jeopardized by the short-sighted policies of jealous monarchs. None of the rulers seem to have had the vision that the Holy Father possessed” [35]. While the League would not survive after the decisive day of the battle, it managed to disable the Turkish plans for further conquest in Europe.

The series of bizarre events surrounding the battle of Lepanto might be discounted as coincidences by materialists, but their high number is enough to make even the hardened atheist pause for reflection. Pius V had purged the soldiers of all but the most devout, believing that a reduction in numbers would be less disadvantageous than a lack of spiritual unity. It was well-known how the earlier Crusades to the Holy Land had suffered from the presence of mercenaries and free-loaders. He was also applying to the expedition the very principles of penitential Christianity that he had applied to himself and the Church for most of his life. Pius V put the entire expedition under the protection of Mary and the Holy Rosary. Any combatant living a scandalous life was not allowed to take part. The soldiers fasted for three days and prayed the Rosary continually. Back in the Papal States, the devout were asked to pray and fast for the success of the Christian expedition. Just prior to the battle, the soldiers confessed and received Holy Communion. Pius V had issued a plenary indulgence to those on the expedition, as was customary in earlier Crusades. He ensured that priests from all the great orders were present on board to offer Mass, pray, hear confessions and grant absolution. On 6th October 1571, the day before the battle, the Christian soldiers received news of how Barbarigo had suffered two days of torture in Cyprus at the hands of Selim’s men, before being publicly flayed alive. Despite a truce with the Turks which was supposed to have guaranteed safe passage for the twenty thousand starving Christians, the Turks broke their promise: all Christian men were butchered, and the surviving women and children were taken into slavery [36]. As motivation to fight, the timing of this news could not have been more efficacious, giving the men both a steely resolve to be victorious and a keen sense of what would happen were they to be captured.

During the battle, several fortuitous coincidences helped the Holy League at key moments. The forces, who were under the command of Don Juan of Austria, began the day in prayer. In Rome, Pius V was praying and fasting, and had ordered all of Rome to do likewise in the great act of spiritual warfare taking on a physical dimension. As the Christian ships sailed towards the Turkish fleet, nothing could be heard above the splash of the oars but the soft intonations of priests saying Mass and the responses from the soldiers [37]. Approaching the enemy fleet, they observed that the Turkish forces outnumbered the Holy League, and many hoped that Don Juan the commander would turn away and retreat. He pressed on regardless, then breaking the silence, fired a symbolic pistol shot at Ali Pasha, the Turkish commander. Ali Pasha had broken the crescent formation of the Turkish fleet and moved his own ships forward, perturbed by the unconventional formation of the Christian ships that Don Juan of Austria had devised. The Turks had hoisted a flag that was steeped in religious significance. Bearing the Muslim crescent, it was from Mecca, contained the word “Allah” stitched 28,900 times in gold, and had only ever been used in combat when the Turks had been victorious [38]. The winds had favoured the Turks at first, creating a false sense of assurance and leading them to take up strategic positions they would come to regret. At a critical moment, just after Don Juan had ordered that the flag bearing the sign of the cross be hoisted and unfurled, the winds changed completely to favour the Christians. Panic ensued among the Turks who had to redirect men down to the galleys to man the oars. Despite the Turks’ superior force, numbers and fire power, the Christians were victorious. After five hours of bitter hand-to-hand combat, mingled with cannon and musket fire, the Turkish fleet was decimated, and 15,000 Christian galley slaves manning their oars were liberated. Almost all the ships of the Turkish fleet were sunk or captured, and an entire generation of skilled mariners was destroyed [39]. Back in Rome Pius V interrupted a meeting precisely at the moment of the Turkish surrender, announcing that he had received a vision of the victory from heaven, ordering all the church bells to ring in Rome to thank God for the victory [40].

Some writers of history might consider this victory “ephemeral” or label the whole expedition “a victory that led nowhere” [41], pointing to the fact that the Turks rebuilt their fleet within a year and the greater invasion of Ottoman Turkey never materialized. But this is a case of failing to grasp what Lepanto meant for Europe and the Church. Looking back we can see that Pius V was right to act as he did, since after Lepanto the Ottoman Empire would never regain the initiative. It is worth examining how Pius V pulled off this rare feat, against all the odds, to disable a once formidable and practically unstoppable enemy – a feat which he himself attributes to nothing other than the intervention of Mary and St Michael by way of fasting and praying the Rosary. The victory at Lepanto is itself forever inextricably bound up for Catholics with the Rosary, as the Pope bequeathed to the faithful Our Lady of Victory and Feast of the Holy Rosary (now simply known as the Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary) every year on October 7, the anniversary of that battle.

The Battle of Lepanto would not have occurred without the incessant pressure from Pius V on the Catholic rulers. It was essentially “an act of desperation for the Europeans, only agreed to at the instigation of the Pope as a last-ditch effort”, which could never have come about “without the imprimatur of Papal approval” [42]. Historians are nevertheless divided about Pius V, perhaps basing their opinions on a personal attitude to whether orthodox Catholicism should or should not have been allowed so much influence in world affairs. They are also divided about the actual consequences of Lepanto, a pre-emptive attack on the ambitious Turks. Some argue that the lack of follow up, the disbanding of the Holy Alliance and the return of squabbling and rivalry among the Catholic states are proof that the victory was ephemeral. However, a Turkish victory in Malta in 1571, which had seemed highly likely, would have given the Turks a strategic foothold from which to launch more decisive attacks on Europe. Ottoman control of the Mediterranean and a sought-after alliance with Lutheran and Protestant rulers would have surrounded the Catholic nations with enemies. Instead, Lepanto signalled an important turnaround in the prestige and initiative of Ottoman Turks, who would never again stand on the verge of a final conquest of Europe. After Lepanto, the Turkish fleet was eventually rebuilt, but their skilled strategists and battle veterans were all dead. The nature of naval warfare had begun to change definitively. With hindsight, it is hard to imagine any other pope, at least during the Renaissance, having the requisite drive, moral force, incorruptible piety and unshakable loyalty to the Catholic Church to create then lead a Holy League to such a monumental, strategic and symbolic victory. In this sense, both the victory of Lepanto and the broader success of the Catholic Counter-Reformation with its powerfully regenerative missionary expeditions, cannot be understood without reference to the extraordinary life and personality of Michele Ghislieri.

Footnotes

  1. C.M. Antony, “Saint Pius V: Pope of the Holy Rosary. Part 6.” Et Verbum. November 14, 2015. Accessed November 13, 2018. http://www.etverbum.com/2015/11/saint-pius-v-pope-of-holy-rosary-by-c-m_14.html.
  2. Nanami Shiono, The Battle of Lepanto. (New York, N.Y: Vertical, 2007), 62. [Shiono is not alone in describing Pius V pejoratively, using words such as “fanatical”.] 3. T. C. F. Hopkins, Confrontation at Lepanto: Christendom vs. Islam. (New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2006), 66.
  3. C.M. Antony, Saint Pius V, Pope of the Holy Rosary, (First Rate. San Bernadino, CA. 2018), 11-12.
  4. John Joseph Laux, Church History: A Complete History of the Catholic Church to the Present Day: For High School, College, and Adult Reading. (Rockford, IL: TAN Books and Publishers, 1989), 484.
  5. Kenneth M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1984), 885.
  6. Robin Anderson, St. Pius V, a Brief Account of His Life, Times, Virtues & Miracles, (Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, 1978), 93.
  7. C.M. Antony, “Saint Pius V: Pope of the Holy Rosary. Part 6”, Et Verbum. November 14, 2015. Accessed November 13, 2018. http://www.etverbum.com/2015/11/saint-pius-v-pope-of-holy-rosary-by-c-m_14.html.
  8. Pope Pius V, “Quo Primum”, Papal Encyclicals, 1570, Accessed November 8, 2018. http://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius05/p5quopri.htm.
  9. C.M. Antony, “Saint Pius V: Pope of the Holy Rosary. Part 6.” Et Verbum. November 14, 2015. Accessed November 13, 2018. http://www.etverbum.com/2015/11/saint-pius-v-pope-of-holy-rosary-by-c-m_14.html.
    11 C.M. Antony, “Saint Pius V: Pope of the Holy Rosary. Part 6.” Et Verbum. November 14, 2015. Accessed November 13, 2018. http://www.etverbum.com/2015/11/saint-pius-v-pope-of-holy-rosary-by-c-m_14.html.
  10. C.M. Antony, “Saint Pius V: Pope of the Holy Rosary. Part 6.” Et Verbum. November 14, 2015. Accessed November 13, 2018. http://www.etverbum.com/2015/11/saint-pius-v-pope-of-holy-rosary-by-c-m_14.html.
  11. Robin Anderson, St. Pius V, a Brief Account of His Life, Times, Virtues & Miracles, (Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, 1978), 24.
  12. John Joseph Laux, Church History: A Complete History of the Catholic Church to the Present Day: For High School, College, and Adult Reading. (Rockford, IL: TAN Books and Publishers, 1989), 484.
  13. John Joseph Laux, Church History: A Complete History of the Catholic Church to the Present Day: For High School, College, and Adult Reading. (Rockford, IL: TAN Books and Publishers, 1989), 485.
  14. Pope Pius V, “Regnans in Excelsis.” Papal Encyclicals. February 25, 1570, (Accessed November 15, 2018, http://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius05/p5regnans.htm).
  15. J. Lynch, “Philip II and the Papacy”, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 11 (1961): 23–42, (doi:10.2307/3678749), 35.
  16. Kenneth M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1984), 1088.
  17. Lillian Browne-Olf, The Sword of St Michael: St Pius V (1504-1572), (The Bruce Publishing Company. Milwaukee, 1943), 252.
  18. Lillian Browne-Olf, The Sword of St Michael: St Pius V (1504-1572), (The Bruce Publishing Company. Milwaukee, 1943), 4. 21. Daniel Goffman, The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe, (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012), 115.
  19. Robin Anderson, St. Pius V, a Brief Account of His Life, Times, Virtues & Miracles, (Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, 1978), 70.
  20. John Joseph Laux, Church History: A Complete History of the Catholic Church to the Present Day: For High School, College, and Adult Reading. (Rockford, IL: TAN Books and Publishers, 1989), 237.
  21. C.M. Antony, Saint Pius V, Pope of the Holy Rosary, (First Rate. San Bernadino, CA. 2018), 55.
  22. Lillian Browne-Olf, The Sword of St Michael: St Pius V (1504-1572), (The Bruce Publishing Company. Milwaukee, 1943), 247.
  23. Robin Anderson, St. Pius V, a Brief Account of His Life, Times, Virtues & Miracles, (Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, 1978), 69.
  24. Angus Konstam, Lepanto 1571: The Greatest Naval Battle of the Renaissance, (Oxford: Osprey, 2003), 9.
  25. Kenneth M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1984), 891.
  26. Angus Konstam, Lepanto 1571: The Greatest Naval Battle of the Renaissance, (Oxford: Osprey, 2003), 29-31.
  27. J. Lynch, “Philip II and the Papacy”, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 11 (1961): 23–42, (doi:10.2307/3678749), 23.
  28. J. Lynch, “Philip II and the Papacy”, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 11 (1961): 23–42, (doi:10.2307/3678749), 23.
  29. J. Lynch, “Philip II and the Papacy”, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 11 (1961): 23–42, (doi:10.2307/3678749), 32.
  30. Lillian Browne-Olf, The Sword of St Michael: St Pius V (1504-1572), (The Bruce Publishing Company. Milwaukee, 1943), 247.
  31. Nanami Shiono, The Battle of Lepanto. (New York, N.Y: Vertical, 2007), 62.
  32. Lillian Browne-Olf, The Sword of St Michael: St Pius V (1504-1572), (The Bruce Publishing Company. Milwaukee, 1943), 252.
  33. Lillian Browne-Olf, The Sword of St Michael: St Pius V (1504-1572), (The Bruce Publishing Company. Milwaukee, 1943), 265-66. 37. T. C. F. Hopkins, Confrontation at Lepanto: Christendom vs. Islam, (New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2006), 138. 38. T. C. F. Hopkins, Confrontation at Lepanto: Christendom vs. Islam. (New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2006), 129.
  34. Angus Konstam, Lepanto 1571: The Greatest Naval Battle of the Renaissance, (Oxford: Osprey, 2003) 88. 40. T. C. F. Hopkins, Confrontation at Lepanto: Christendom vs. Islam. (New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2006), 128.
  35. Fernand Braudel (1949), cited in Angus Konstam, Lepanto 1571: The Greatest Naval Battle of the Renaissance, (Oxford: Osprey, 2003), 89. 42. T. C. F. Hopkins, Confrontation at Lepanto: Christendom vs. Islam. (New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2006), 27.

Bibliography
Anderson, Robin. St. Pius V, a Brief Account of His Life, Times, Virtues & Miracles. Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, 1978.
Antony, C.M. Saint Pius V, Pope of the Holy Rosary. First Rate. San Bernadino, CA. 2018.
Antony, C.M. “Saint Pius V: Pope of the Holy Rosary. Part 6.” Et Verbum. November 14, 2015. Accessed November 13, 2018. http://www.etverbum.com/2015/11/saint-pius-v-pope-of-holy-rosary-by-c-m_14.html.
Bicheno, Hugh, and Stone, Norman. Crescent and Cross: The Battle of Lepanto 1571. London: Cassell, 2003.
Bradley, James E. and Muller, Richard A. Church History: An Introduction to Research, Reference Works, and Methods. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1995.
Browne-Olf, Lillian. The Sword of St Michael: St Pius V (1504-1572). The Bruce Publishing Company. Milwaukee. 1943 Davies, Michael. A Short History of the Roman Mass. Rockford (Illinois): TAN Books, 1997. Goffman, Daniel. The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2012. Hopkins, T. C. F. Confrontation at Lepanto: Christendom vs. Islam. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, 2006.
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Laux, John Joseph. Church History: A Complete History of the Catholic Church to the Present Day: For High School, College, and Adult Reading. Rockford, IL: TAN Books and Publishers, 1989.
Lynch, J. “Philip II and the Papacy.” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 11 (1961): 23–42. doi:10.2307/3678749.
McBrien, Richard P. The Pocket Guide to the Popes. New York: HarperCollins E-books, 2009.
O’Malley, John W. A History of the Popes: From Peter to the Present. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publ., 2011.
Pope Pius V. “Quo Primum.” Papal Encyclicals. 1570. Accessed November 8, 2018. http://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius05/p5quopri.htm.
Pope Pius V. “Regnans in Excelsis.” Papal Encyclicals. February 25, 1570. Accessed November 10, 2018. http://www.papalencyclicals.net/pius05/p5regnans.htm.
Setton, Kenneth M. The Papacy and the Levant. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1984.
Shiono, Nanami, and Carolyn L. Temporelli. The Battle of Lepanto. New York, N.Y: Vertical, 2007.
Vailhé, Siméon. “Lepanto.” The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1910. www.newadvent.org/cathen/09181b.htm. Accessed 28 Oct. 2018

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Comments

  1. cda

    Thanks for the video! (Please excuse any duplicate posts. 4th time trying to post b/c “Google failed to send expected code”)

    I wanted to note that the papalencyclical.net translation of Quo Primum needs some fixing. (Where’s Ryan Grant when you need him?) The word “new (novus, -a, -um)” appears nowhere in Quo Primum, let alone modifying the word “rite”.

    The translation seems to add “This new rite alone is to be used …” as a restatement of the earlier “let Masses not be sung or read according to any other formula than that of this Missal published by Us.”

    That is, what in English translation is “Let all everywhere adopt and observe …” to “unless approval of practice of saying mass differently …” is part of one long run-on sentence in the Latin. And the English translation breaks up the run-on sentence, but has to restate the relevant part of the same sentence in order to make a smaller complete sentence in English. Unfortunately, “This new rite alone is to be used” is a poor way to restate the earlier “let not … according to any other formula than … by us”.

    There are other minor problems. For example, near the beginning where the English is “and the Breviary thoroughly revised for the worthy praise of God,” a more literal translation might be “and the breviary corrected for the owed praises having to be paid to God (et ad debitas Deo persolvendas laudes Breviario castigato)”. First, The Latin castigere (from castum ago, I make pure/chaste) is not really to revise. And second, the “worthy praise of God” completely drops the sense that there is a debt of praise owed to God.

    Because of problems like these, the English reader might be prejudiced against tradition and toward innovation, easily imagining some parallel between Pius V’s Quo Primum and Paul VI’s promulgation of the novus ordo, especially when Paul VI asserts that parallel!

    For the Latin Quo Primum, one need only look, as Fr. Hesse says, at the beginning of any Missale Romanum from Pius V until the late unpleasantness. Internet Archive has a few come up when searching “Missale Romanum”. The 1920 version, with mercifully modern typesetting, is here:
    https://archive.org/details/MissaleRomanum1920/page/n3/mode/2up
    In that 1920 version, Quo Primum is pp.4-6. If the online version lacks resolution, try the pdf.

    Always good to hear Fr. Hesse!

     
  2. Joe D

    Thanks for this brief. Plus 5 was a great Pope and saved Christendom from Islam otherwise today we all would have been Muslims.

    He also said why do we not go East and St Francis Xavier went east and brought many to Catholicism.

    A great Pope ! Thank You ! Words cannot express what you did for us who were to be born later on……….

    Queen and Mother of the Last Times
    Snatch me out of the clutches of Evil.

    Hail Philomena rose empurpled by thy own blood, Pray for us.
    Blessed be the angel who guarded thee !

     

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